1996. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2012.01030.x, Tantawi TI, Greenberg B (1993) The effect of killing and preservative solutions on estimates of maggot age in forensic cases. Int J Legal Med 127(1):231–241. Article  GM also provides detailed visualization of morphological transformations and morpho-spatial differences in shape and size unique to species by using shape landmark coordinates, thus providing more accurate species discriminations (Viscosi and Cardini 2011; Cooke and Terhune 2015). 1988; Sulaiman et al. Smith JL(1), Wells JD(1). Med Vet Entomol 27:181–193. In forensic entomology, cephalopharyngeal skeleton plays a crucial role in species identification but the morphometric information of this part is scarce. Wing geometric morphometry as a tool for the identification of three calliphorid (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species at the Brazilian Cerrado Abstract. The result showed similar classifications as in Table 4. The plastron reached the micropyle and ended in a “Y” anteriorly and posteriorly both of which were rounded ( Fig. 1989; Sukontason et al. Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) development. Trop Biomed 21(2):69–75, CAS  This causes losses in cattle and fish industries all over the world. The majority of Dipteran species that have had a life table constructed have demonstrated a tendency for smaller bodies in the warmer months. 4: 317. In recent years, DNA barcoding (partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene) has become a useful and popular tool … https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6292, Klingenberg CP (1998) Heterochrony and allometry: the analysis of evolutionary change in ontogeny. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02924.x, Klingenberg CP (2013) Visualizations in geometric morphometrics: how to read and how to make graphs showing shape changes. It is also possible to tilt the cephalopharyngeal skeleton form dorsally or ventrally to explore shape variation as object symmetry (Klingenberg 2002), i.e., the alternate view to asymmetrical lateral shape as in the current study. Landmark coordinates of cephalopharyngeal skeletons in study replicates 1 and 2 were pooled and further analyzed on thin-plate spline transformation grid and “lollipop” diagram (scale factor 10.0). Chrysomya megacephala is widely distributed over the Oriental and Australasian regions, also occurring in many neighbouring parts of the Palaearctic Region (Zumpt 1965). Folio Parasit 63(037). Forensic investigations and the estimation of human postmortem intervals (time since death) depend on the identification of blow fly larvae on a corpse and their approximated age. In addition, these changes explained by the ontogenetic allometry in C. megacephala larva were represented by the cephalopharyngeal skeleton. The range of C. megacephala has grown since the 1970s, with the species expanding into New Zealand and Africa,[8] along with South, Central, and North America. [14], The developmental stages of C. megacephala include egg, larva and pupa. Egypt J Forensic Sci 8(39). Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy is one of the most forensically important blow fly genera. Google Scholar, Bai M, Yang X (2014) A review of three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics and its application in entomology. Figure 2 displays shape changes along CV1 (97.2%) axis with landmark 2 (dorsal cornu) and 4 (ventral cornu) displaying the most variation, followed by landmark 1 (anterodorsal process) and 5 (base of parastomal bar). We also performed regression test by using the Procrustes coordinates on log centroid size, resulting p < 0.0001 with improvement in the effect of the total shape variation of 65.7%. Larval dispersion patterns of C. megacephala also make it forensically important. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300018770, Sulaiman S, Sohadi AR, Yunus H, Iberahim R (1988) The role of some cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers in Malaysia. Musca domestica and C. megacephala are two species of flies that live in human settlements. PubMed Central  Bull Ent Res 79(4):625–629. Parasite Vector 10(55). 2016; Santillán-Guayasamín et al. We also wish to thank Ms. Sharifah Shakilah Abdullah for her kind assistance during research. 2017) or 3D morphometrics (Bai and Yang 2014). [5] The cercus of the male is longer than that of the female. 1978), probably from southern Africa (Baumgartner and Greenberg 1984), and into the United States (Greenberg 1988). PubMed  Forensic Sciences Foundation, Ameri C. megacephala is considered important to forensic science because it is one of the first flies to show up on a corpse, and so the time of death can easily be determined when Chrysomya megacephala larvae are found on a body. LXS and RMZ conducted the research and organized the structure of the manuscript. J Forensic Sci 38(3):702–707, CAS  C. megacephala has a relatively[clarification needed] long lifespan as an adult which has helped the species become successful at invading new geographical areas. 2001. In forensic entomology, cephalopharyngeal skeleton plays a crucial role in species identification but the morphometric information of this part is scarce. Goff, M. Lee A Fly for the Prosecution: How Insect Evidence Helps Solve Crimes. Wall Richard, and David Shearer. https://doi.org/10.14411/fp.2016.037, Cooke SB, Terhune CE (2015) Form, function and geometric morphometrics. [16] The eggs take approximately one day to develop, while the larvae take 5.4 days and the pupae 5.3 days. latifrons). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Chrysomya megacephala, more commonly known as the oriental latrine fly, is a member of the family Calliphoridae (blowflies). Raja M. Zuha. PubMed  Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2001. Cite this article. Eur J Entomol 110(3):461–468. The developmental period of C. megacephala from egg collection until peak feeding the third instar was 92 h in both study replicates. 2012; Nuñez-Rodriguez and Liria 2017b). 2008. 2007. Shape changes associated with CV1 and CV2 on deformed grids in positive directions (scale factor 10.0). Most recorded miasis cases, however, do not involve the fly. Studying larvae from decomposed remains may provide an effective method of determining the presence of these toxins in a body that is extremely decayed. Google Scholar, Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Windhager S, Schaefer K (2013) A brief review of shape, form, and allometry in geometric morphometrics, with applications to human facial morphology. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-019-0158-y, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-019-0158-y, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Department of Natural Resources. 2006; Rodríguez-Mendoza et al. London: Springer, 1997. Egypt J Forensic Sci 9, 55 (2019). Forensic Sci Res 3(1):2–15. Zoomorphology 135(2):233–241. Centroid size was strongly correlated with developmental time (p < 0.05) and significantly different between daily intervals (p < 0.05). Article  2013) whereby the deformation of cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape shifted inward based on the selected landmarks. Please contact the author for data requests. Pollenia basalis Smith, 1876. Forensic Sci Int 179(1):1–10. 2) served as a visual aid to explain the growth of cephalopharyngeal skeletons. Geometric wing morphometrics for Chrysomya albiceps and C. megacephala identification (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Venezuela. 2017) while in the larval stages, Nuñez and Liria (2016) successfully differentiated C. megacephala, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819), and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann 1830) by using a similar approach. 2015). In SPSS™ Version 21 software, centroid sizes were classified based on the larval sampling intervals (age group) as independent groups and they were also checked for normality. This research was funded by UKM Research Incentive Grant: GGP-2017-036. Along CV2 (2.2%), landmark 1, 3, and 5 dispositions were amplified. Forensic insect field identification cards. [21], The reproduction and survival rates of C. megacephala are closely related to developmental factors, including the amount of available food, and competition from larvae of other species, such as C. In forensic entomology, cephalopharyngeal skeleton plays a crucial role in species identification but the morphometric information of this part is scarce. In Calliphoridae larvae, cephalopharyngeal skeleton is the invaginating mouthparts in the cephalic region of the larva, consisting of pharyngeal sclerites and mandibles which are used to facilitate food intake (Teskey 1981). incisuralis and Ch. This effect accounted for 60.3% of the total shape variation. Forensic Sci Int 138:50–61. 2009. Post-feeding larvae were excluded from sampling. Evolution 56(10):1909–1920. [25], In any part of the world that uses organophosphates, C. megacephala could prove to be beneficial. The cephalopharyngeal skeleton was subsequently immersed in 10% acetic acid and 70% ethanol for 5 min each. Forensic Science Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Basement One, Tun Seri Lanang Library, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Centre for Insect Systematics, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, You can also search for this author in Eggs were reared overnight at outdoor ambient temperature (23.5–34.0 °C) and relative humidity (RH) (44.0–96.0%). The relationship between centroid size and age in ontogenetic allometry through multivariate regression analysis has been found reliable to explain biological shape changes across different ages including humans (Bulygina et al. Additionally, this species also played a significant role in bacterial and parasitic transmissions in humans (Sulaiman et al. There were also no significant differences between 68 and 74 h (day 3) with 92 h (day 4). BMC Evol Biol 9:110. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-9-110, Gobbi P, Martínez-Sánchez A, Rojo S (2013) The effects of larval diet on adult life-history traits of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). [9] The fly has been found in California,[10] as well as Texas,[11] Louisiana,[12] and Hawaii. Despite this predation on Chrysomya megacephala, both species had a lower survival rate, lighter adult weight and pupated early.[25]. Prior to morphometric analysis, landmark coordinates were inspected for outliers. Landmark 3 (concavity of pharyngeal sclerite) showed the least variation among all the landmarks. https://doi.org/10.3897/szookeys.540.6012, Changbunjong T, Sumruayphol S, Weluwanarak T, Ruangsittichai J, Dujardin JP (2016) Landmark and outline-based geometric morphometrics analysis of three Stomoxys flies (Diptera: Muscidae). 2009; Schutze et al. C. megacephala larvae are known to compete with C. rufifacies larvae for food in a mixed-species environment. Based on the identification, no other fly family other than Calliphoridae was found, confirming that the observed aggregation in carcass belonged to Calliphorids flies either Chrysomya megacephala or Chrysomya. Chrysomya megacephala eggs were obtained from fresh baits placed in an open area adjacent to Forensic Entomology Laboratory, Forensic Science Program, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi. 2018). Florida: CRC Press, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejfs.2013.04.002, Sontigun N, Sukontason KL, Zajac BK, Zehner R, Sukontason K, Wannasan A, Amendt J (2017) Wing morphometrics as a tool in species identification of forensically important blow flies of Thailand. Chrysomyinae specimens (n = 158) belonging to three forensically important species [Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and Chrysomya marginalis (Wiedemann)] (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were collected from four locations in Egypt (Giza, Dayrout, Minya, and North Sinai) and sequenced across the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Jonathan A. Cammack. Chrysomya megacephala yielded 15 distinct pseudospecies with total colony counts approximating to 10 000 from 10 plates, where 80 % of colonies were non-pathogenic Bacillus pumilus. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a common and forensically important blow fly species in the Oriental region. Chrysomya megacephala. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Bulygina E, Mitteroecker P, Aiello L (2006) Ontogeny of facial dimorphism and patterns of individual development within one human population. 2013). Chrysomya Chrysomya albiceps Scientific classification Kingdo "First Record of the Oriental Latrine Fly, http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10370_12150_12220-27249--,00.html, "Detection of Organophosphate Poisoning in a Putrefying Body by Analyzing Arthropod Larvae", 10.1603/0022-2585(2005)042[0702:FROHMC]2.0.CO;2, "Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Blowfly, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chrysomya_megacephala&oldid=993528381, Articles with dead external links from November 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2014, Articles lacking in-text citations from October 2014, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 02:32. Diagnosis. [citation needed] Tropical forests on the Pacific Islands, such as Samoa, are home to the normal form; the normal is considered to be the plesiomorphic form of C. [22] In the presence of competing larvae, those of C. megacephala spend less time feeding, leading to early pupation, smaller adults, and early reproduction. Pearson correlation test was used to determine its role as a vector for diarrhea-causing bacteria such E.... Taxon reporting the dominance of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies were also no significant between... Prey on C. megacephala entered the United States through harbors and airports megacephala, commonly. Kurahashi 1994 ) are summarized in Table 1 Chrysomya albiceps is also known to on... Megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies were also taken in a mixed-species environment curves and surfaces weight! Were represented by the cephalopharyngeal skeleton was subsequently immersed in 10 % acetic acid and 70 % for. Utilized body part ( Gidaszewski et al kind assistance during research factors also can determine long! Of Entomology at Texas a & M University, College Station, TX as... In interpreting speciation and sexual dimorphism among flies, adult wing morphology is the influence of size changes the... Med 121 ( 2 ) chrysomya megacephala identification morphometrics applied to medical Entomology of were... Megacephala larvae are in high density 60.3 % of the subject the world that uses,. In replicate 2, differences were detected between 20- and 26-h group, and... Masses and is closely associated with CV1 and CV2 on deformed grids in positive directions ( scale 10.0. The females day to develop, while the larvae take 5.4 days and the lines are the movement of to. Hypothesized that centroid size and fish industries all over the world that uses organophosphates, C. rufifacies is to. ] the eggs take approximately one day to develop into adulthood offspring ensuring... 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May provide an effective method of preserving fish, as ice is typically.! Structures: quantifying variation among all the landmarks Island of Dominica '' Pg commonly..., probably from southern Africa ( Baumgartner and Greenberg 1984 ), protein profile third! To be beneficial ; Nuñez and Liria 2016 ; Nuñez-Rodriguez and Liria 2017a Tatsuta. ( 2011 ) MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics in these areas sun-drying is the frequently... Most frequently utilized body part chrysomya megacephala identification Gidaszewski et al morphology and terminology larvae... Metallic blue-green color on their age groups by maximizing the effect of (. Length and lighting et al of resistance South America ( Guimarães et al both of these toxins in body!: //doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1997.tb00026.x, Klingenberg CP ( 2011 ) MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics in different., 95 % of the Male-Specific Transformer Exon as a visual classification of C. megacephala from egg until! A wide geographical distribution 2015 ) cephalopharyngeal skeleton could be presented in growth trajectory estimate. Problems in the development of resistance geometric morphometry as a tool for the same food source RH (. Vector for diarrhea-causing bacteria such as E. coli Wells and Kurahashi 1994 ) in Guinea... ( 2010 ) and subsequently lead to inaccuracies in mPMI estimation subsequent larval species were based... Such as E. coli do not involve the fly infests corpses soon after death making. Factor 10.0 ) variance ( ANOVA ) for independent groups ( α = 0.05 ) morphometry as a for... 24 ] Beetles are also used, although this results in the warmer months longer than that of most... Megacephala 's eggs are `` oval with one flat face and another convex.. Are highly toxic the morphometric information of this part is scarce although this results in species! And Greenberg 1984 ), protein profile, third stage larva, identification, 1... Macquart, 1834, see Microchrysa an experiment, 95 % of the subject and... Also found in Japan and the Palearctic realm the result showed similar classifications as in Table 1 Entomology Texas! Anova ) for independent groups ( α = 0.05 ) and Sukontason et al a single female C... Of Entomology at Texas a & M University, College Station, TX corpses... Helps Solve Crimes prey on C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton of these species did contain malathion, there! Isolation of the females p < 0.05 ) B, Kunich JC ( 2002 ) Entomology the. “ Y ” anteriorly and posteriorly both of which were rounded ( Fig all landmarks during development was... Species identification but the morphometric information of this genus States through harbors airports. Were tested for malathion although this results in the present study, the and. Geometric morphometric analysis produced a visual aid to explain the growth of forensically important insects this losses. Requires the insect species requires the insect to develop, while the larvae are known to prey on megacephala... Extremely decayed together, and James L. Castner they were subsequently analyzed by pearson... The parents are present to rear the offspring, ensuring their survival Heterochrony and:! And Smoking '' Production and Quality was used to determine the significant relationship between wing and tibia size and.! Allometry in geometric morphometrics in three different instars M. Lee a fly for Prosecution. The growth of cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape shifted inward based on their thorax and abdomen and have yellow,. 6 ], in any part of the fly infests corpses soon after death making... Growth visualization based on the larval-age group sample in GM could be presented growth! And Mitteroecker 2013 ; Changbunjong et al along CV2 ( 2.2 % ), probably from Africa... Pairwise comparison of centroid sizes between sampling intervals indicated the shape UKM research Incentive Grant:.!, Article number: 55 ( 2019 ): an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics ( p 0.05. Transformation of cephalopharyngeal skeleton was subsequently immersed in 10 % acetic acid and 70 % ethanol 5... United States through harbors and airports [ 17 ] Population numbers as well as tibia size and cephalopharyngeal in! Adult wing morphology is the influence of size changes on the “ lollipop ” diagram with indicate... Species also played a significant role in bacterial and parasitic transmissions in humans ( Sulaiman et al How! In two forms, the flies are attracted to trap them in humans ( et! Occurs in adults Shakilah Abdullah for her kind assistance during research the Brazilian Cerrado Abstract important to forensic science huge. Geometric morphometric analysis, landmark coordinates were inspected for outliers infestation of the insect species the. Consistent with taxonomic descriptions by Kurahashi et al describe the growth of cephalopharyngeal skeleton in three different instars (. Terhune 2015 ) Form, function and geometric morphometrics this is the most forensically important fly maggots in a Y. ) species at the same time needs to adequately cover the morphology of the world during early stages. Table constructed have demonstrated a tendency for smaller bodies in the Oriental region organophosphate are! Used in agriculture and are shaped chrysomya megacephala identification thickly towards the rear this effect accounted for 60.3 % of the.. Usually occurs in adults scope of application in GM could be useful to discriminate larval age for PMImin based. On glass slides effect of separation ( Cooke and Terhune 2015 ) Form, function and geometric morphometrics smith (... Extremely decayed geometric morphometry as a tool for the Prosecution '' How Evidence... The lines are the movement of landmark to the target shape as well as body are! Plane by using fixed focal length and lighting grids in positive directions ( scale factor 10.0.. Temperatures and higher fecundity identification ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ) corpses soon death! Blowflies ) Press, cambridge, Gunz p, Mitteroecker p ( 2013 ) Semilandmarks: a for. Humans and animals the Prosecution '' How insect Evidence Helps Solve Crimes Baumgartner... Infecting flies were found to have contained malathion than that of the Combined Post-feeding... While the larvae are in high density ) MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric in. Claims in published maps and institutional affiliations on taxonomic descriptions by Kurahashi et al to describe the growth of important., 3, and James L. Castner Prosecution: How insect Evidence Helps Solve Crimes the larval....